Mader, F., Muller, S., Krause, L., Springer, A., Kernig, K., Protzel, C., et al. (2018). Non-selective ion channels (HCNs) activated by hyperpolarization activated by ion channels regulate human and mouse bladder connility. Up front. Physiol. 9:753. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00753 The use of metyramine as stimulants in our study deserves some thought. Metyramine is an inverse antagonist of histamine H1 receptors. When used at supraphysiological concentrations (as in this study and others), it can stimulate histaminic receptors (Naylor et al., 1994; Fitzsimons et al., 2004). While the therapeutic use of these high doses for human patients is not involved, the above-reported traction reactions of fascia tissues to this substance suggest that H1 receptors on possible MF targets for future examinations that study a therapeutic modulation of fascia contraction. Botulinum toxin type C3 , also known as C3 transfer, is one of the toxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Unlike the botulinum toxin type A more common in modern medicine and cosmetics, it is not a neurotoxin, but a selective ribosylate Rho GTPase in its binding field of effect (Sekine et al., 1989). Previous cell culture studies have shown that this substance may have an inhibitory effect on the contractable activity of human MFB (Parizi et al., 2000).
To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that botulinum C3 toxin is also capable of inhibiting contrasting activity in fascian tissues. Because the cellular permeability of this substance is a limiting factor, long incubation periods have been recommended (conductor et al., 2010). Based on this reflection and prior to our research, it was therefore not clear whether this substance could be used in whole tissues of fascias as an MFB inhibitor and/or as a relaxation inducer. The results of our in vitro experiments, in which stimulation of rat lumbenfaszie over a 3-hour period produced a force grab, tend to support the proposition that therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin type C3 could be studied as a new pathway in the treatment of fibrotic pathology characterized by an increase in contractic activity of MFBs (Namazi and Abdjained, 2007). Contraction induced by a position-dependent barn force. As in Figure 1 of all other figures, black squares and blue circles are transverse connections or motors. a) Engines near a sharp end typically induce a constant complete (stretching) force difpol, indicated by grey arrows representing the projection of forces on the direction of the filaments. b) Engines near a stinger end have the opposite effect. (c) We characterize the resulting net relationship by pooling all local networking configurations. Irwin, L. R., Naylor, I.
L. and Holms, W. (1997). The ankle. An in vitro study. J. Hand. Br. 22, 110-112.
doi: 10.1016/S0266-7681 (97) 80033-2 Movement within eukaryotic cells comes largely from localized forces exerted by myosin motors on scaffolding of actin filaments. Although some motors exert locally both contrasting and extensive forces, large cell-scale actomyosine structures are mainly contracted, indicating that scaffolding is used to favour contraction over elongation.